Cold Storage requirement in India:
Preservation of food by proper storage assumes greater importance in a country like India, where there is a substantial production of a variety of perishable foods like fruits and vegetables, milk products, fish, poultry and meat products. Among the various methods of preserving food products, Refrigeration is the most important one. Cold storage conditions are different for product to product, but certain basic facts are true for all the commodities (fruits, vegetables and other products). In the case of fruits and vegetables particularly, the problems faced in storage and handling are, Desiccation or loss of moisture. Physical break down of tissue, Chemical changes (oxidation) of certain matter in the product, hydrolysis of fats and esters, as well as changes in food proteins.
During storage, product undergoes metabolism, in which living cells takes oxygen and give up the carbon dioxide (along with the enzyme actions). In addition to above during storage, bacterial, yeast and mould growth within / on the product also observed. Such growth is very rapid at room temperatures and decreasing as the temperature is lowered. It is almost ceasing as the temperature drops to about -10°C to -12°C. Hence, the country like India where normal temperature ranges between 25°C - 45°C, the need for cold storages becomes a vital and important requirement as well as processes related to storage is also a key area of concern.
Based on the Utility and Control Parameter “COLD STORAGE” are classified in to following three types:
- NORMAL / MULTI COMMODITY COLD STORAGE
- FROZEN COLD STORAGE
- CA (Control Atmosphere) / ULO (Ultra Low Oxygen) COLD STORAGE